Thi Thu Thuy Vu1,
1 University of Languages and International Studies

Main Article Content


This preliminary qualitative research aims to examine the changes in the level of explicitness of cohesive elements during the translation process. It does so by comparing an excerpt from Jane Austen's English novel "Pride and Prejudice" (1993) with its two Vietnamese translations by Diep Minh Tam (2002) and Lam Quynh Anh and Thien Nga (2017). The study focuses on how these translations handle cohesive elements based on Halliday and Hassan's cohesion taxonomy (1976). It also considers the tendency for explicitation, as suggested by Blum-Kulka's hypothesis (1986) and Gumul's framework (2017). The analysis involves identifying these cohesive devices in the source text and comparing them with their counterparts in the target texts to detect translational shifts towards greater explicitness. Additionally, the study examines how the two Vietnamese translations differ from each other in handling these elements. The findings of this descriptive study reveal that both Vietnamese translations employ explicitation techniques, including reiteration, the transformation of pro-forms into lexical cohesion, and the restoration of substitution and clausal ellipses used in the original text. The analysis also reflects different translation decisions in transferring the same source language content into the target language between the two translators, which manifests in the usage of explicitation shifts in the target language texts under study.

Article Details


Arhire, M. (2017). Cohesive devices in translator training: A study based on a Romanian translational learner Corpus. Meta, 62(1), 155–177. https://doi.org/10.7202/1040471a
Austen, J. (1993). Pride and prejudice. Wordsworth Classics.
Baker, M. (1992). In other words: A coursebook on translation. Routledge.
Baker, M. (1993). Corpus linguistics and translation studies: Implications and applications. In M. Baker, G. Francis, & E. Tognini-Bonelli (Eds.), Text and technology: In honour of John Sinclair (pp. 233-250). John Benjamins.
Baker, M. (Ed.). (1998). Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies. Routledge.
Bassnett, Susan (2002). Translation studies. Reviewed edition. Routledge.
Baumgarten, N., Meyer, B., & Özçetin, D. (2008). Explicitness in translation and interpreting: A critical review and some empirical evidence (of an elusive concept). Across languages and cultures, 9(2), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1556/Acr.9.2008.2.2
Becher, V. (2011). Explicitation and implicitation in translation: A corpus-based study of English-German and German-English translations of business texts. Universität Hamburg.
Blum-Kulka, Shoshona and Levenston, Eddie (1983). Universals of Lexical Simplification. In Claus Faerch and Gabriele Kasper, (Eds.), Strategies in inter-language communication, 119-139. Longman.
Blum-Kulka, S. (1986). Shifts of cohesion and coherence in translation. In L. Venuti (Ed.), The translation studies reader (pp. 298-313). Routledge.
Brown, G., & Yule, G. (1983). Discourse analysis. Cambridge University Press.
Cerban, M. (2010). Types of lexical relations: Reiteration. Annals of the University of Craiova, Series: Philology, English, Year XI, No.2. https://ssrn.com/abstract=2768575
Diệp Quang Ban (1992). Ngữ pháp tiếng Việt (tập 2). NXB Giáo dục.
Diệp Quang Ban (1999). Văn bản và liên kết trong tiếng Việt. NXB Giáo dục.
Diệp Quang Ban (2003). Giao tiếp, văn bản, mạch lạc, liên kết, đoạn văn. NXB Khoa học Xã hội.
Diệp Quang Ban (2009). Giao tiếp diễn ngôn và cấu tạo của văn bản. NXB Giáo dục.
Diệp Minh Tâm (2002). Kiêu hãnh và định kiến. NXB Văn học.
Dimitrova, E.B. (2005). Expertise and explicitation in the translation process. John Benjamins.
Đỗ Hữu Châu (1997). Từ vựng ngữ nghĩa tiếng Việt. NXB Đại học Quốc gia Hà Nội.
Frankenberg-Garcia, A. (2009). Are translations longer than source texts ? A corpus-based study of explicitation. In A. Beeby, P. Rodriguez, & P. Sanchez-Gijon (Eds.), Corpus use and translating: Corpus use for learning to translate and learning corpus use to translate (pp. 47-58). John Benjamins.
Gumul, E. (2017). A study into explicitating behaviour of trainee interpreters. Explicitation in simultaneous interpreting. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego. Katowice 2017.
Halliday, M., & Hassan, R. (1976). Cohesion in English. Longman.
Halliday, Michael A.K. (1985/1994). An introduction to functional grammar, 2nd edition. Edward Arnold.
Hoàng Phê (Chủ biên) (1996). Từ điển Tiếng Việt. NXB Đà Nẵng.
Hopkinson, C. (2008). Shifts of explicitness in translation. A Czech–English study. Universitas Ostraviensis.
House, J. (2004). Explicitness in discourse across languages. In Juliane House, Werner Koller & Klaus Schubert (eds.), Neue Perspektiven in der Übersetzungs- und Dolmetschwissenschaft, 185–208. Bochum: AKS.
Južnič, T. (2013). Bridging a grammar gap with explicitation: A case study of the nominalized infinitive. Across Languages and Cultures, 14(1), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1556/Acr.14.2013.1.4
Kirk, Sung Hee (2005). Cohesion shifts in English-Korean Translation. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Manchester.
Klaudy, K. (1993). Explicitation. In A. Mauranen & P. Kujamaki (Eds.), Translation universals: Do they exist? (pp. 153-9). John Benjamins.
Klaudy, K. (1998). Explicitation. In M. Baker (Ed.), Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies (pp. 80-84). Routledge.
Klaudy, K., & Karoly, K. (2005). Implicitation in translation: Empirical evidence for operational asymmetry in translation. Across Languages and Cultures, 6, 13-28.
Lâm Quỳnh Anh & Thiên Nga. (2021). Kiêu hãnh và định kiến. NXB Nhã Nam.
Larson, Mildred L. (1984). Meaning-based translation: A guide to cross-language equivalence. University Press of America.
Laviosa-Braithwaite, S. (2001). Universals of translation. In M. Baker (Ed.), Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies (pp. 288-291). Routledge.
Laviosa-Braithwaite, S. (2008). Description in the translation classroom: Universals as a case in point. In A. Pym, M. Shlesinger, & D. Simeoni (Eds.), Beyond descriptive translation studies. John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Le, Thi Giao Chi (2018). A study of universal strategies in Vietnamese translation of-ment nominalisation in English official texts. Journal of Science and Technology, 8, 129.
Leuven-Zwart, Kitty M. van (1990). Translation and original: Similarities and dissimilarities. II. Target, (1), 69-95.
Lotfipour-Saedi, K. (1997). Lexical cohesion and Translation Equivalence. Meta, 42(1), 185–192. https://doi.org/10.7202/004014ar
Minh Chinh, N. (2022). Some basic functions of translation. VNU Journal of Foreign Studies, 38(2), 151-161. https://jfs.ulis.vnu.edu.vn/index.php/fs/article/view/4964
Martin, J.R. (1992). English text: System and structure. Benjamins.
Mcshane, Marjorie. J. (2005). A theory of Ellipsis. Oxford University Press.
Moud, H., & Bekkouche, M. S. (2020). Shifts of cohesion in subtitling from English into Arabic: A corpus-based study on explicitation of reference, substitution, and ellipsis. AWEJ for Translation & Literary Studies, 4(3), 191-197. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4002926
Newmark, Peter (1988). Approaches to Translation. Prentice Hall.
Nguyen, Bui Thuy Minh & Truong, Bach Le (2022). Exploring explicitation in translating English nominalisation into Vietnamese. Scientific Journal of Linguistics and Culture, 6(2).
Olohan, M., & Baker, M. (2000). Reporting “that” in translated English: Evidence for subconscious processes of explicitation?. Across Languages and Cultures, 1(2), 141-158.
Olohan, M. (2002). Leave it out! Using a comparable corpus to investigate aspects of explicitation in translation. Cadernos de Traducao, 1(9), 153-169.
Øverås, L. (1998). In search of the third code: An investigation of norms in literary translation. Meta, 43(4), 571-588. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/003775ar
Pápai, V. (2004). Explicitation: A universal of translated text ?. In A. Mauranen & P. Kujamaki (Eds.), Translation universals: Do they exist?, (pp. 143-164). John Benjamins.
Paltridge, B. (2012). Discourse analysis: An introduction (2nd ed.). Bloomsbury.
Puurtinen, T. (2004). Explicitation of clausal relations: A corpus-based analysis of clause connectives in translated and non-translated Finnish children’s literature. In A. Mauranen & P. Kujamäki (Eds.), Translation universals: Do they exist?, (pp. 165-176). John Benjamins.
Pym, Anthony (2010). Exploring Translation Theories. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203869291
Quirk, R., & Greenbaum, S. (1976). A university grammar of English. The Australian government.
Saldanha, G. (2008). Explicitation revisited: Bringing the reader into the picture. Unpublished seminar paper. https://d-nb.info/999838504/34
Schäffner, C. (2000). Discourse analysis for translation and translator training: status, needs, methods. Current Issues in Language and Society, 7(3), 177-184. https://doi.org/10.1080/13520520009615580
Séguinot, C. (1988). Pragmatics and the explicitation hypothesis. TTR: Traduction, Terminologie, Rédaction, 1(2). https://doi.org/10.7202/037024ar
Shlesinger, Miriam (1995). Shifts in cohesion in simultaneous interpreting. The Translator, 1(2), 193-214.
Tanskanen, S. (2006). Collaborating towards coherence: Lexical cohesion in English discourse. Benjamins.
Toury, G. (1978/2012). The nature and role of norms in literary translation. In L. Venuti (Ed.), The Translation Studies Reader (3rd ed., pp. 168–181). Routledge.
Toury, G. (1995/2012). Descriptive translation studies – and beyond (Revised ed.). John Benjamins.
Trần Ngọc Thêm (1981). Một cách hiểu về tính liên kết văn bản. Tạp chí Ngôn ngữ, 2.
Trần Ngọc Thêm (1999). Hệ thống liên kết văn bản tiếng Việt. NXB Khoa học Xã hội.
Trosborg, Anna (2002). Discourse analysis as part of translator training. In Christina Schäffner (Ed.), The Role of Discourse Analysis for Translation and Translator Training. Contemporary Issues in Language and Society, 3, 9-52. Multilingual Matters.
Van Van, H. (2022). Interlingual translation: An attempt at understanding some basic concepts. VNU Journal of Foreign Studies, 38(6), 1-29. https://jfs.ulis.vnu.edu.vn/index.php/fs/article/view/4880
Vinay, J. P., & Darbelnet, J. (1958/1995). Comparative stylistics of French and English: A methodology for translation (Vol. 11). John Benjamins Publishing.
Venuti, L. (Ed.). (2000). The translation studies reader. Routledge.
Wilson, P. (2014). Mind the gap (1st ed.). Taylor and Francis. https://www.perlego.com/book/1554820/mind-the-gap-ellipsis-and-stylistic-variation-in-spoken-and-written-english-pdf
Wu, Jing (2014). Shifts of cohesive devices in English-Chinese translation. Theory and practice in language studies, 4(8), 1659-1664. https://doi.org/10.4304/tpls.4.8.1659-1664