1. The authors comply with ethics regarding research and scientific work and take personal responsibility for the content of the manuscript, the accuracy and academic integrity of the manuscript content. Data and analysis results have to be true and have not been manipulated and/or modified.

2. When submitting a manuscript to Journal of Foreign Studies, the author(s) undertakes that the manuscript must be the original scientific work done by themselves; has not been submitted/published in any other journals; and will not be submitted to any other journals before the final advice is provided by Journal of Foreign Studies.

3. The submission file is in Microsoft Word file format.

4. The text is formatted on an A4 page; single-spaced; uses a Times New Roman 12-point font; and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.

5. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Submission policies. All citations in the article have to be fully and properly cited. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.