READING STRATEGIES USED BY STUDENTS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ENGLISH READING PROFICIENCY
Main Article Content
Reading plays a vital role in academic development, particularly when learners have to work over a huge amount of foreign language materials for their own specialist subjects (McDonough & Shaw, 2013). Strengthening English reading ability is necessary for students to promote individual ability in university education. This study was conducted to explore if there were any differences in the use of reading strategies among university students of different levels of self-rated English reading proficiency. 957 students from 6 universities in the North of Vietnam participated in the study. The results of the study through the questionnaire adapted from Oxford’s (2013) Self-Strategic Regulation model (S2R) show that there were significant differences in the use of reading strategies among students of different self-rated levels of English reading proficiency, especially between students of good and poor proficiency. The highest frequencies in the use of each strategy category were in the group of self-rated good readers and the students of the poor group reported the lowest frequencies. The study also reveals individual strategies used the most and the least by each group of students.
reading strategies, English reading proficiency, university students, Vietnam
Al-sheikh, N. (2011). Three readers, three languages, three texts: The strategic reading of multilingual and multiliterate readers. The Reading Matrix, 11(1), 34-53.
Barnett, M. (1988). Teaching through context: How real and perceived strategy use affect L2 comprehension. The Modern Language Journal, 77, 150-162.
Brantmeier, C. (2002). Second language reading strategy research at the secondary and university levels: Variations, disparities, and generalizability. The Reading Matrix, 2(3), 1-13.
Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy (2nd ed.). Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
Carrell, P., Gajuusek, L., & Wise, T. (1998). Metacognition and EFL/ESL reading. International Science, 26, 97-112.
Carrell, P. L., Pharis, B. G., & Liberto, J. C. (1989). Metacognitive strategy training for ESL reading. TESOL Quarterly, 23, 647-678.
Cohen, A., & Macaro, E. (Eds.). (2007). Language learner strategies: Thirty years of research and practice. Oxford University Press.
Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297-334.
Dhieb-Henia, N. (2003). Evaluating the effectiveness of metacognitive strategy training for reading research articles in an ESP context. English for Specific Purposes, 22(4), 387-417. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0889-4906(03)00017-6
Ebrahimi, S. S. (2012). Reading strategies of Iranian postgraduate English students living at ESL context in the first and second language. In Ch. Dan (Ed.), International proceedings of economics development and research: Education and management innovation (Vol. 30, pp. 195-199). IACSIT Press.
Ehrman, M. E., Leaver, B. L., & Oxford, R. L. (2003). A brief overview of individual differences in second language learning. System, 31, 313-330.
Garner, R. (1987). Metacognition and reading comprehension. Ablex Publishing.
Griffiths, C. (2008). Strategies and good language learners. In C. Griffiths (Ed.), Lessons from good language learners (pp. 83-98). Cambridge University Press.
Hosenfeld, C. (1977). A preliminary investigation of the reading strategies of successful and unsuccessful second language learners. System, 5, 110-145.
Hsiao, T. Y., &. Oxford, R. L. (2002). Comparing theories of language learning strategies: A confirmatory factor analysis. Modern Language Journal, 86, 368-383.
Huang, J., & Nisbet, D. (2014). The relationship between reading proficiency and reading strategy use: A study of adult ESL learners. Journal of Adult Education, 43(2), 1-14.
International Reading Association. (2012). Adolescent literacy: A position statement of the International Reading Association (2012 ed.).
Madhumathi, P., & Ghosh, A. (2012). Awareness of reading strategy use of Indian ESL students and the relationship with reading comprehension achievement. English Language Teaching, 5(12), 131-140.
Malcolm, D. (2009). Reading strategy awareness of Arabic-speaking medical students studying in English. System, 37, 640-651.
McDonough, J., & Shaw, C. (2013). Materials and methods in ELT: A teacher’s guide (3rd ed.). Blackwell.
Mokhtari, K., & Sheorey, R. (2002). Measuring ESL students’ awareness of reading strategies. Journal of Developmental Education, 25, 2-10.
Oranpattanachi, P. (2010). Perceived reading strategies used by Thai pre-engineering students. ABAC Journal, 30(2), 26-42.
Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies. What every teacher should know. Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
Oxford, R. L. (2001). Language learning strategies. In R. Carter & D. Nunan (Eds.), The Cambridge guide to teaching English to speakers of other languages (pp. 166-172). Cambridge University Press.
Oxford, R. L. (2013). Teaching and researching language learning strategies. Pearson.
Oxford, R. L., & Nyikos, M. (1989). Variables affecting choice of language learning strategies by university students. Modern Language Journal, 73, 291-300.
Paris, S. G., Wasik, B. A., & Turner, J. C. (1991). The development of strategies of readers. In R. Barr, M. Kamil, P. Mosenthal & P. D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 2, pp. 609-640). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Rubin, J. (2008). Reflections. In C. Griffiths (Ed.), Lessons from good language learners (pp. 10-15). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511497667
Saeed, K., Maedeh, M., & Mohsen, R. (2012). Hypermedia reading strategies used by Persian graduate students in TEFL: A think-aloud study. Reading Matrix: An International Online Journal, 12(1), 39-49.
Shikano, M. (2013). A quantitative survey on metacognitive awareness of reading strategy use in English by Japanese university students. International Education Centre Journal, 14, 121-135.
Shokrpour, N., & Nasiri, E. (2011). The use of cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies by Iranian IETSE test takers in the reading section of the test. European Journal of Social Science, 22(1), 126-134.
Swanson, P. N., & De La Paz, S. (1998). Teaching effective comprehension strategies to students with learning and reading disabilities. Intervention in School & Clinic, 33(4), 209-219.
Vann, R., & Abraham, R. (1990). Strategies of unsuccessful language learners. TESOL Quarterly, 24(2), 223-234.
Yang, L. L. (2004). The development of a validated perceived self-efficacy scale on English reading strategies. Journal of Education & Psychology, 27(2), 377-398.
Yau, J. C. (2005). Two Mandarin readers in Taiwan: Characteristics of children with higher and lower reading proficiency levels. Journal of Research in Reading, 28(2), 108-123.
Yayli, D. (2010). A think-aloud study: Cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies of ELT department students. Egitim Arastirmalari-Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 38, 234-251.
Yin, W. M., & Agnes, C. S. C. (2001, December 2-6). Knowledge and use of metacognitive strategies [Paper presentation]. AARE Annual Conference, Fremantle, Australia. http://www.aare.edu.au/Olpap/won01419.htm
Zhang, L. (2001). Awareness in reading: EFL students’ metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies in an acquisition-poor environment. Language Awareness, 10(4), 268-288.
Zhang, L., & Seepho, S. (2013). Metacognitive strategy use and academic reading achievement: Insights from a Chinese context. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 10, 54-69.