METACOGNITIVE READING STRATEGIES USED BY ENGLISH-MAJORS AT A UNIVERSITY IN VIETNAM
Main Article Content
Metacognitive reading strategies which include (1) global reading strategies, (2) support reading strategies, (3) problem solving strategies are critical for effective reading comprehension (Mokhtari & Reichard, 2002). This research aims to explore how high-achieving and low-achieving students at Faculty of Foreign Languages at a university in Vietnam use metacognitive reading strategies in comprehending English reading texts. A mixed research method is employed with two data collection instruments - a survey questionnaire adopted from MARSI Scale by Mokhtari and Reichard (2002) and semi-structured interviews. Forty two English-majors participated in the questionnaire, then representatives of high-achievers and low-achievers participated in semi-structured interviews to provide deeper information. The findings revealed students’ different frequency levels of using metacognitive reading strategy groups in reading comprehension. Additionally, the results indicated how frequently each metacognitive reading strategy is used by the high-achievers and low-achievers. This research would enhance teachers’ awareness of using metacognitive reading strategies for English majors at their different levels and suggest how they instruct their students of different levels to practice metacognitive reading strategies appropriately and effectively.
metacognitive reading strategies, reading comprehension, high-achievers, low-achievers
Ahmadi, M. R., Ismail, H. N., & Abdullah, M. K. K. (2013). The importance of metacognitive reading strategy awareness in reading comprehension. English Language Teaching, 6(10), 235-249. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/elt.v6n10p235
Alderson, J. C. (2000). Assessing reading. Cambridge University Press.
Anderson, T. (2003). Getting the mix right again: An updated and theoretical rationale for interaction. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 4(2). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v4i2.149
Chamot, A. (1987). The learning strategies of ESL students. In A. L. Wenden & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategy in language learning (pp. 71-83). Prentice Hall.
Chen, K. T. -C., & Chen, S. C. -L. (2015). The use of EFL reading strategies among high school students in Taiwan. The Reading Matrix: An International Online Journal, 15(2), 156-166.
Do, H. M., & Phan, H. L. T. (2021). Metacognitive awareness of reading strategies on second language Vietnamese undergraduates. Arab World English Journal, 12(1), 90-112. https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol12no1.7
Dunston, P. J., & Headley, K. N. (2002). Think-alouds. In B. J. Guzzetti (Ed), Literacy in America: An encyclopedia of history, theory, and practice (pp. 655-656). ABC-CLIO.
Gibbons, P. (2002). Scaffolding language, scaffolding learning. Heinemann.
Grabe, W. (2009). Reading a second language: Moving from theory to practice. Cambridge University Press.
Grabe, W., & Stoller, F. L. (2002). Teaching and researching reading. Pearson Education Longman.
Grellet, F. (1981). Developing reading skill: A practical guide to reading comprehension exercise. Cambridge University Press.
Hong-Nam, K., & Leavell, A. G. (2006). Language learning strategy use of ESL students in an intensive English learning context. System, 34(3), 399-415.
Hsu, S. C. (2006). The reading strategies used by EFL technical students. Journal of Nanya, 26, 159-174.
Mokhtari, K., Dimitrov, D. M., & Reichard, C. A. (2018). Revising the metacognitive awareness of reading strategies inventory (MARSI) and testing for factorial invariance. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 8(2), 219-246. http://dx.doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2018.8.2.3
Mokhtari, K., & Reichard, C. A. (2002). Assessing students’ metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(2), 249-259.
Mokhtari, K., & Sheorey, R. (2002). Measuring ESL students' awareness of reading strategies. Journal of Developmental Education, 25(3), 2-10.
Nguyen, T. B. T. (2018). Reading strategies used by Vietnamese EFL and ESL University students. VNU Journal of Foreign Studies, 34(2), 111-124. https://doi.org/10.25073/2525-2445/vnufs.4250
O’Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge University Press.
Pammu, A., Amir, Z., & Maasum, T. N. R. T. M. (2014). Metacognitive reading strategies of less proficient tertiary learners: A case study of EFL learners at a public university in Makassar, Indonesia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 118, 357-364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.02.049
PourhoseinGilakjani, A., & Sabouri, N. B. (2016). How can students improve their reading comprehension skills? Journal of Studies in Education, 6(2), 229-240.
Rastegar, M., Mehrabi Kermani, E., & Khabir, M. (2017). The relationship between metacognitive reading strategies use and reading comprehension achievement of EFL learners. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 7, 65-74. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojml.2017.72006
Rupley, W. H., Blair, T. R., & Nichols, W. D. (2009). Effective reading instruction for struggling readers: The role of direct/explicit teaching. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 25(2-3), 125-138.
Salataci, R., & Akyel, A. (2002). Possible effects of strategy instruction on L1 and L2 reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 14(1), 1-17.
Semtin, S. A., & Maniam, M. (2015). Reading strategies among ESL Malaysian secondary school students. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 4(2), 54-61.
Shen, H.-J. (2003). The role of explicit instruction in ESL/EFL reading. Foreign Language Annals, 36(3), 424-433.
Wang, J., Spencer, K., & Xing, M. (2009). Metacognitive beliefs and strategies in learning Chinese as a foreign language. System, 37(1), 46-56.
Zhang, L., & Seepho, S. (2013). Metacognitive strategy use and academic reading achievement: Insights from a Chinese context. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 10(1), 54-69.